If you're a doctor and you have 1 patient, use simple probability like a coin flip, if you have few patients use Binomial Distribution, if you have hundreds of thousand of patients (such as in testing a new drug) use Normal Distribution.
These thoughts were extracted from Udacity online course and cover topics such as: Visualizing relationships in data, Probability, Estimation, Outliers and Normal Distribution, Inference and Regression.
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The standard score is the signed number of standard deviations by which the value of an observation or data point is above the mean value of what is being observed or measured. Observed values above the mean have positive standard scores, while values below the mean have negative standard scores. z = (x - μ)/σ