ins and outs Shaders are nice little programs on their own, but they are part of a whole and for that reason we want to have inputs and outputs on the individual shaders so that we can move stuff around. GLSL defined the in and out keywords specifically for that purpose.
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Components of a vector can be accessed via vec.xwhere x is the first component of the vector. You can use .x, .y, .z and .w to access their first, second, third and fourth component respectively. GLSL also allows you to use rgba for colors or stpq for texture coordinates, accessing the same components.