The vector datatype allows for some interesting and flexible component selection called swizzling. Swizzling allows for the following syntax:
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Components of a vector can be accessed via vec.xwhere x is the first component of the vector. You can use .x, .y, .z and .w to access their first, second, third and fourth component respectively. GLSL also allows you to use rgba for colors or stpq for texture coordinates, accessing the same components.