Formative experiences can end up holding you back later in life , e.g. teacher telling you your not good at painting , e.g. may leave you doubting your artistic ability, this is an example of a limiting belief.these can be deeply ingrained and when the going get tough you can tend to fall back on them. — Once you start noticing and understanding your limiting beliefs you can start to changing them.
the old thought patterns are what the author calls fear tapes - loops of negativity stored in your mental library.
They come in all shapes and sizes.